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2016年6月英语四级仔细阅读真题及答案(卷二)

2016-06-28 23:40[四六级真题] 来源:互联网 评论:0条
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Section C


  Passage One

  Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

  Declining mental function is often seen as a problem of old age,but certain aspects of brain function actually begin their decline in young adulthood, a new study suggests.

  The study, which followed more than 2,000 healthy adults between the ages of 18 and 60, found that certain mental functions—including measures of abstract reasoning, mental speed and puzzle-solving—started to dull as early as age 27.

  Dips in memory, meanwhile, generally became apparent around age 37.

  On the other hand, indicators of a person’s accumulated knowledge—like performance on tests of vocabulary and general knowledge—kept improving with age, according to findings published in the journal Neurobiology of Aging.

  The results do not mean that young adults need to start worrying about their memories. Most people’s minds function at a high level even in their later years, according to researcher Timothy Salthouse.

  "These patterns suggest that some types of mental flexibility decrease relatively early in adulthood, but that the amount of knowledge one has, and the effectiveness of integrating it with one’s abilities,may increase throughout all of adulthood if there are no dispases," Salthouse said in a news release.

  The study included healthy, educated adults who took standard tests of memory, reasoning and perception at the outset and at some point over the next seven years.

  The tests are designed to detect subtle (细微的)changes in mental function, and involve solving Puzzles, recalling words and details from stories, and identifying patterns in collections of letters and symbols.

  In general, Salthouse and his colleagues found, certain aspects of cognition (认知能力)generally started to decline in the late 20s to 30s.

  The findings shed light on normal age-related changes in mental function, which could aid in understanding the process of dementia(痴呆),according to the researchers.

  "By following individuals over time," Salthouse said, "we gain insight in cognition changes, and may possibly discover ways to slow the rate of decline."

  The researchers are currently analyzing, the study participants’ health and lifestyle to see which factors might influence age-related cognitive changes.

  47.【题干】What is the common view of mental function?

  【选项】

  A.It varies from person to person.

  C.It gradually expands with age.

  B.It weakens in one’s later years.

  D.It indicates one’s health condition.

  【答案】B

  【解析】Declining mental function is often seen as a problem of old age,but certain aspects of brain function actually begin their decline in young adulthood, a new study suggests.

  48.【题干】What does the new study find about mental functions?

  【选项】

  A.Some diseases inevitably lead to their decline.

  B.They reach a peak at the age of 20 for most people.

  C.They are closely related to physical’ and mental exercise.

  D.Some of them begin to decline when people are still young.

  【答案】D

  【解析】but certain aspects of brain function actually begin their decline in young adulthood, a new study suggests.

  49.【题干】What does Timothy Salthouse say about people’s minds in most cases?

  【选项】

  A.They tend to decline in people’s later years.

  B.Their flexibility determines one’s abilities.

  C.They function quite well even in old age.

  D.Their functioning is still a puzzle to be solved.

  【答案】C

  【解析】Most people’s minds function at a high level even in their later years, according to researcher Timothy Salthouse.

  50.【题干】Although people’s minds may function less flexibly as they age, they_____.

  【选项】

  A.may be better at solving puzzles

  B.can memorize things with more ease

  C.may have greater facility in abstract reasoning

  D.can put what they have learnt into more effective use

  【答案】D

  【解析】"These patterns suggest that some types of mental flexibility decrease relatively early in adulthood, but that the amount of knowledge one has, and the effectiveness of integrating it with one’s abilities,may increase throughout all of adulthood if there are no dispases," Salthouse said in a news release.

  51.【题干】According to Salthouse, their study may help us_____.

  【选项】

  A.find ways to slow down our mental decline

  6.find ways to boost our memories

  C.understand the complex process of mental functioning

  D.understand the relation between physical and mental health

  【答案】A

  【解析】Salthouse said, "we gain insight in cognition changes, and may possibly discover ways to slow the rate of decline."

  Passage Two

  Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.

  The most important thing in the news last week was the rising discussion in Nashville about the educational needs of children. The shorthand(简写)educators use for this is "pre-K"—meaning instruction before kindergarten—and the big idea is to prepare 4-year-olds and even younger kids to be ready to succeed on their K-12 journey.

  But it gets complicated. The concept has multiple forms, and scholars and policymakers argue about the shape, scope and cost of the ideal program.

  The federal Head Start program, launched 50 years ago, has served more than 30 million children. It was based on concepts developed at Vanderbilt University’s Peabody College by Susan Gray, the legendary pioneer in early childhood education research.

  A new Peabody study of the Tennessee Voluntary Pre-K program reports that pre-K works, but the gains are not sustained through the third grade. It seems to me this highlights quality issues in elementary schools more than pre-K, and indicates longer-term success must connect pre-K with all the other issues, related to educating a child.

  Pre-K is controversial. Some critics say it is a luxury and shouldn’t be free to families able to pay. Pre-K advocates insist it is proven and will succeed if integrated with the rest of the child’s schooling. I lean toward the latter view.

  This is, in any case, the right conversation to be having now as Mayor Megan Barry takes office. She was the first candidate to speak out for strong pre-K programming. The important thing is for all of us to keep in mind the real goal and the longer, bigger picture.

  The weight of the evidence is on the side of pre-K that early intervention (干预)works. What government has not yet found is the political will to put that understanding into full practice with a sequence of smart schooling that provides the early foundation.

  For this purpose, our schools need both the talent and the organization to educate each child who arrives at the schoolhouse door. Some show up ready, but many do not at this critical time when young brains are developing rapidly.

  52.【题干】What does the author say about pre-kindergarten education?

  【选项】

  A.It should cater to the needs of individual children.

  B.It is essential to a person’s future academic success.

  C.Scholars and policymakers have different opinions about it.

  D.Parents regard it as the first phase of children’s development.

  【答案】C

  【解析】第一段:But it gets complicated. The concept has multiple forms, and scholars and policymakers argue about the shape, scope and cost of the ideal program.

  53.【题干】What does the new Peabody study find?

  【选项】

  A.Pre-K achievements usually do not last long.

  B.The third grade marks a new phase of learning.

  C.The third grade is critical to children’s development.

  D.Quality has not been the top concern of pre-K programs.

  【答案】A

  【解析】A new Peabody study of the Tennessee Voluntary Pre-K program reports that pre-K works, but the gains are not sustained through the third grade.

  54.【题干】When does the author think pre-K works the best?

  A.When it is accessible to kids of all families.

  B.When it is made part of kids’ education.

  C.When it is no longer considered a luxury.

  D.When it is made fun and enjoyable to kids.

  【答案】B

  【解析】It seems to me this highlights quality issues in elementary schools more than pre-K, and indicates longer-term success must connect pre-K with all the other issues, related to educating a child.

  56.【题干】What do we learn about Mayor Megan Barry?

  【选项】

  A.She knows the real goal of education.

  B.She is a mayor of insight and vision.

  C.She has once run a pre-K program.

  D.She is a firm supporter of pre-K.

  【答案】D

  【解析】She was the first candidate to speak out for strong pre-K programming.

  56【题干】What does the author think is critical to kids’ education?

  【选项】

  A.Teaching method.

  B.Kids’ interest.

  C.Early intervention.

  D.Parents’ involvement.

  【答案】C

  【解析】The weight of the evidence is on the side of pre-K that early intervention (干预)works. What government has not yet found is the political will to put that understanding into full practice with a sequence of smart schooling that provides the early foundation.

【看这里~】

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