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小小症状愁煞人:肺炎常识知多少?

2016-09-14 09:13[医务英语] 来源: 浏览: 次 评论:0条

导读:近日美国民主党总统候选人希拉里·克林顿被曝患有肺炎,令大选局势增加不少变数。你对肺炎了解多少?它又有什么样的危害呢?

肺炎入门知识_英语头条

On a simple level, pneumonia is an infection of the lungs. It is treatable and preventable but was responsible for nearly one million deaths in 2015. It is the leading cause of death among children under five around the world.

简单来说,肺炎就是一种肺部的感染。这种疾病可治疗、可预防,但是在2015年就造成了近100万人死亡。肺炎也是世界范围内五岁以下儿童死亡的主要原因。

It is most often caused by the Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria, but viruses like the flu, and even fungi also cause the disease.

肺炎通常由肺炎链球菌引起,也会由类似流感病毒的病毒引起,甚至真菌也会引发肺炎。

Once it gets in a person’s lungs, the alveoli, or air sacs that take in oxygen, swell and fill up with fluid. This makes breathing difficult and painful, and can also limit the amount of oxygen a person takes into their body with each breath. It also causes fever, chills and coughing.

一旦病原体进入肺部,肺泡(类似吸入氧气的气囊)就会肿胀并充满积液。这使呼吸变得困难且痛苦,并且会限制每次呼吸时进入人体的氧气量。肺炎会引起发烧、发冷和咳嗽。

Those most at risk are the very young, the elderly (over the age of 65) and anyone with a compromised immune system.

小孩、65岁以上的老人和免疫力低下的人非常容易得肺炎。

Because the symptoms mimic those of the flu and the common cold, diagnosis sometimes takes a visit to a doctor, who will listen to your lungs for "crackling, bubbling, and rumbling sounds when you inhale," according to the American Lung Association (ALA). A follow up chest X-ray may also be necessary.

根据美国肺科协会的信息,以上这些症状会和流感以及普通感冒相混淆,所以要想确诊是不是肺炎需要去看医生,让医生听诊在你吸气时,肺部是否有“捻发音、啰音或者水泡音”。接下来做一个胸部X光片也很有必要。

For viral pneumonia, doctors can prescribe anti-viral medication. The disease routinely lasts 1-3 weeks in people, who are otherwise healthy.

对病毒性肺炎来说,医生可以开抗病毒药物。对于本来健康的人来说,一般1-3个星期就可以康复。

For people who get bacterial pneumonia - the most common kind - treatment for mild cases can include antibiotics, rest and fluids, and fever control. The recovery time is similar to viral pneumonia. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, another bacterial form of the illness, also called "walking pneumonia," is generally mild, but full recovery may take an extended period of time, especially for the young, elderly and unhealthy.

对于得了细菌性肺炎(这一种比较常见)的人来说,轻度病例可以使用抗生素、休息+喝水疗法以及控制发烧症状来治疗。康复期和病毒性肺炎大体相同。支原体肺炎是细菌性肺炎中的一种,又称“能行走的肺炎”,是一种比较轻的情况,但是完全康复要花费很长时间,对小孩、老人和体弱者来说尤其如此。

Preventing pneumonia requires the same steps used to prevent colds and the flu. The ALA recommends an annual flu shot. In addition, "Children younger than 5, and adults 65 and older should get vaccinated against pneumococcal pneumonia." Wash your hands early and often, don’t smoke and get plenty of rest and exercise.

预防肺炎的措施基本上和预防感冒以及流感是一致的。美国肺科协会建议每年都接种流感疫苗。此外,“5岁以下的小孩、65岁及以上的成年人应该接种链球菌性肺炎疫苗。”还有,要注意经常洗手、不吸烟、保证足够的休息和运动。

If you’re the parent of young children, make sure you’re up to date on all your vaccines. "There are several other vaccines that can prevent infections by bacteria and viruses that may lead to pneumonia," according to the ALA, "including pertussis, chicken pox and measles."

如果你的孩子还小,一定不要错过接种疫苗的时间。“有几种疫苗可以预防由细菌和病毒引起的感染,这些感染可能会引发肺炎。”美国肺科协会建议,“包括百日咳、水痘和麻疹。”


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