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英语巴士:高考英语短文改错与语法填空必考点抽象名词具体化

2020-04-16 07:26[高考英语] 来源:www.engbus.cn 浏览: 次 评论:0条

  高考英语短文改错与语法填空必考点

  抽象名词具体化

  高考英语短文改错和语法填空中的冠词考点,最喜欢考察的就是抽象名词具体化为可数名词。名词复数本身考点很简单,作为国家选拔性考试的高考,必然要越过传统考点,考察同学们头疼的容易丢分的细节,抽象名词具体化就是。

  总体上来讲,抽象名词不表示具体的事物,因此无单复数。如:make fun of; make progress; make use of; be in danger; sit in silence; of great use; of great importance; of great help; of great value etc.

  但抽象名词具体化之后就要加上相应的冠词,完全当作可数名词适用。具体有如下情形:

  一、示情感、情绪的词,强调具体的人或事时常将其具体化使用。常用的重点抽象名词有:

  1. beauty美、美丽(不可数名词) a beauty美人、美丽的东西(可数名词)

  如:the beauty of nature大自然的美 He regarded his wife as a beauty.他把妻子视为美人。

  2. experience经验(不可数名词) an experience一次经历(可数名词)

  如:Experience is the best teacher.经验是最好的老师。 An unusual experience一次不同寻常的经历

  3. surprise吃惊、惊奇(不可数名词) a surprise令人吃惊的人或事(可数名词)

  如:in surprise惊奇地、吃惊地/to one’s surprise令人吃惊的是

  What a surprise to see you here! 在这里见到你真是个意外的事。

  4. pleasure愉快、高兴(不可数名词) a pleasure一个乐事、一个乐趣(可数名词)

  如:with pleasure高兴地、乐意地/take pleasure in以…为乐、爱好

  It’s a pleasure to work with him. 和他一块儿工作是件乐事。

  5. pride骄傲(不可数名词) a pride令人骄傲的人或事(可数名词)

  如:He takes pride in his son.他以儿子为骄傲。 He is a pride to his parents.他是父母的一个骄傲。

  6. reality实际(不可数名词) a reality一个实现的事、现实(可数名词)

  如:in reality事实上 His hope has become a reality.它的希望成为了现实。

  7. honor荣誉、信誉(不可数名词) an honor一种光荣的人或事(可数名词)

  如:for the honor of the country为了国家的荣誉 It’s an honor to speak here.在这里发言是我的荣幸。

  8. success成功(不可数名词) a success一个成功的人或事(可数名词)

  如:be sure of success确信成功 He is a great success as a scientist.作为科学家,他是个伟大的成功者。

  9. failure失败(不可数名词) a failure/failures失败的人或事(可数名词)

  如:Failure is the mother of success.失败是成功之母。

  He had had six failures and would have a seventh try. 他已经历六次失败,并将再次努力。

  10. comfort安危、舒适(不可数名词) a comfort一个令人安慰的人或事(可数名词)

  如:enjoy comfort享受舒适 Books become a comfort to him.书籍成为他的一种安慰。

  11. promise希望、前途、出息(不可数名词) a promise允诺、诺言(可数名词)

  如:The crops are full of promise.这些庄稼长势喜人。

  keep/break/carry out a promise信守/违背/履行诺言

  12. danger危险(不可数名词) a danger可能引起危险的人或物(可数名词)

  如:In war, a soldier’s life is full of danger.战争中,士兵的生命充满了危险。

  The man is a danger to society.那是个对社会危险的人物。

  二、表行为的抽象名词,强调其具体表现形式时,常以a/an加抽象名词,或a/an+形容词+抽象名词。常用短语、句型如下:

  have a wonderful supper have a strong character

  have a bright future have a good time

  have a population of have a good knowledge/understanding of

  have an income of receive a good education

  receive a warm welcome cover an area of

  reach a height of It’s a waste of time/money.

  It’s a great help to me. It’s a pity that…

  三、 表示具体动作意义的抽象名词,加a/an与某些动词(have, take, make, give)等词连用时,表示某一次短暂的动作。

  have a swim/rest/look/trip/discussion/smoke/wash/sleep make an advance/an early start/an apology

  take a walk/bath

  give/take a try

  take/have a great interest

  go out for a walk

  四、 接同源宾语的短语,通常名词表示具体化意义。

  die a heroic death

  live/lead a happy/simple/hard/poor/bitter life

  dream a strange dream

  另外还有:

  You are a danger to the public=You are dangerous ...

  2.It is a pleasure to help you=(pleasant)

  3.A dictionary is a necessity in learning English.(necessary)

  4.It is a long wait in the dark.

  5.It can grow to a length(height/width/depth) of 11 meters.

  6.I've got a pain here.

  7.It is a waste of time and money(energy/materials).

  8.China has a history of about 5000 years.

  9.a terrible experience,

  a sense of humour(touch),

  a sweet memory,

  have a good(nice)time,

  at a speed of,

  have a population of,

  have an area of,

  a collection of,

  in a hurry,

  all of a sudden,

  take/have a look(bath/break/nap),

  have a walk/swim/sleep

  五、有些抽象名词前加不定冠词可表达具体意义,表示“令人。。。。。。的人或事”,这样用法的名词又可分为以下三种情况:

  1. 抽象名词前加不定冠词表示对某种情况的感受,这类名词本身就是表示人的感觉类的形容词的名词形式: joy, delight ,sorrow,shock, pity ,shame, pleasure, comfort, relief, disappointment, etc.

  例如:

  The news that out team won the match is a delight to everybody.

  我们队赢得了比赛的消息是一件让每个人都高兴的事。

  That he stole the necklace was a shame to his family 他偷项链的事令他的家人感到耻辱。

  It’s a relief that his health is picking up now. 他的健康状况正在好转是一件令人宽慰的事。

  What a pity it is that you should miss the party this weekend!你不能参加周末的聚会真令人感到遗憾!

  2. 有一些抽象名词在有修饰限定成分的情况下表示具体意义,这类名词有:

  history, knowledge, experience, help, danger, failure,etc.

  Chica is an ancient civilized country with a history of over 5000 years.

  中国是一个拥有五千多年历史的文明古国。

  Living on a deserted island for a night can be quite an experience.

  在荒岛上度过一晚会是一次特别的经历。

  A knowledge of English is a must for young people today.

  对于现在的年轻人来说英语知识的掌握是一个必备条件。

  Having an English-Chinese dictionary at hand is a great help to the learners of English in China.

  手头有一本英汉字典对中国的英语学习者来说是很大的帮助。

  3. 有些抽象名词前加不定冠词既可以指人又可以指物,例如success ,failure,etc.

  The experiment turned out to be a great success. 这个实验结果很成功。

  She turned out to be a success at marketing . 后来她成了营销业的成功人士。

  Everybody wants to be a success;that is to say, nobody wants tobe a failure.

  人人都想要成功,那也就是说,没有人想要失败。

  注:in debt(负债);in mind(记在心上);after class(课后);at table(吃饭);at night/noon,

  六:有没有具体化的意义不同

  in surprise惊讶地 a surprise一件令人惊讶的事

  win success获得成功 a success一个(件)成功的人(事)

  win honor赢得荣誉 an honor一个(件)引以为荣的(事)

  Failure(失败)is the mother of success. a failure失败者

  by experience靠经验 an experience一次经历

  youth青春 a youth一个青年人

  have pity on sb.怜悯某人 a pity可惜的事情

  with pleasure乐意 a pleasure乐事

  ②抽象名词与a(an)连用,淡化了抽象概念,转化为似乎可以体验到的动作、行为或类别。

  A knowledge of English is a must in international trade.

  Would you like to have a walk(swim, bath, talk)with me?

  She made an apology to her mother for her wrong doings.


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