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低碳水和生酮饮食:胆固醇高了怎么办?

2020-09-12 03:02[双语阅读] 来源:www.engbus.cn 浏览: 次 评论:0条

  Two pounds of de-boned white fish.

  1斤8两去骨白鱼。

  One-half cup butter.

  半杯黄油。

  And two-thirds pint or more of cream.

  6两多奶油。

  Two tablespoon of flour.

  2茶匙面粉。

  The juice of one half lemon.

  半个柠檬的汁。

  Salt and pepper to taste.

  若干盐及花椒。

  Excluding the fish and lemon, this recipe's saturated-fat-packed dairy to carbohydrate ratio is 19:1.

  除去鱼和柠檬,该食谱中饱和脂肪与碳水化合物的比例是19:1。

  Low carb or ketogenic cookbooks with recipes like this may sound like a delicious way to lose weight.

  这些烹饪书籍中介绍的低碳水或生酮食谱,既美味又能减肥。

  But what about cholesterol and heart disease?

  但会不会增加胆固醇并导致心脏病呢?

  What's interesting about this saturated fat heavy recipe is that it isn't recent at all.

  值得注意的是,这份食谱很久以前就有了。

  It came from an 1895 cookbook.

  记载这道食谱的烹调书出版于1895年。

  A time when heart disease rates were at an all time low.

  那时候的心脏病发病率可说是处于历史最低点。

  Almost every single recipe in The Baptist Ladies' Cook Book contains butter, eggs, cream or lard.

  这本《浸礼会妇女烹饪大全》中记载的几乎每一份食谱都用到了黄油、鸡蛋、奶油或猪油。

  And, if you rewind to ninety nine years earlier in 1796 when The First American Cookbook came out, you find plenty of recipes using plenty of lard and fat pork.

  还有,出版于1796年的这本《美国第一食谱》中记载的许多食谱,大量使用猪油和肥猪肉。

  And a majority of the recipes call for butter, usually by the pound or half pound.

  而且大部分食谱的黄油用量一般是一斤,或至少半斤左右。

  Before 1910, people in the United States almost exclusively used saturated fat heavy butter and animal fats for cooking and baking.

  1910年以前,美国人做饭基本上都是用的黄油之类的动物脂肪,而且用量极大。

  At the time, cooking with vegetable oils was almost unheard of.

  那时候,菜油根本就不存在。

  But as the process of hulling and pressing seeds and beans was mechanized, vegetable oils became cheaper than butter or animal fat.

  但随着机械化生产程度的不断提高,菜油变得比黄油之类的动物油脂更加便宜。

  From 1909 to 1999, consumption of soybean oil in the United States increased by more than 1,000-fold per person.

  从1909到1999年,美国大豆油的人均消费量增长了1000多倍。

  Margarine consumption increased 12-fold.

  人造黄油消费量增加了12倍。

  But consumption of butter and lard decreased by about four-fold each.

  而黄油和猪油的消耗量则分别下降了4倍左右。

  Sometime after 1910, there was concern about the growing rates of heart disease.

  1910年之后,随着心脏病发病率的逐年攀升。

  And president Eisenhower's heart attack in 1955 really got the ball rolling on figuring out what causes heart disease.

  以及1955年艾森豪威尔总统心脏病发作,人们开始探究心脏病的发病原因。

  There were a couple places to look.

  可能的病因有几个。

  For example, smoking rates were on the rise along with the rise of heart disease.

  例如,心脏病发病率上升的同时,吸烟率也在上升。

  President Eisenhower by the way, had been a four-pack-a-day chainsmoker a couple years before his heart attack.

  顺便提一下,艾森豪威尔总统在心脏病发作前,每天要抽4包烟。

  Despite this, and the fact that the president's attack occurred right in the middle of the rapid decline of animal fat consumption and rapid rise of vegetable oil consumption, saturated fat took the blame.

  尽管如此,虽然总统先生心脏病发作于菜油消费激增、动物油脂消费骤减期间,但后者却成了罪魁祸首。

  You probably know the rest of the story.

  后来发生了什么,大家可能都很清楚。

  It was found that cholesterol is contained in the plaques that clog arteries, and saturated fat increases your cholesterol.

  堵塞的动脉血管中发现了胆固醇,摄入饱和脂肪会增加人体中的胆固醇。

  Thus, artery clogging saturated fat became a common phrase.

  于是,饱和脂肪会堵塞动脉血管便成了常识。

  But before we get into whether having high cholesterol from eating too much saturated fat causes heart disease, let's look at cholesterol itself.

  在讨论胆固醇能否导致心脏病之前,让我们先来说说胆固醇。

  What is it for?

  胆固醇是干什么的?

  Well, first off, it's very important for maintaining the integrity of cells in your body.

  首先,胆固醇对维持人体细胞完整性至关重要。

  Without it, your cells would turn to mush.

  没有它,人体细胞就会变成糊状。

  A huge function of cholesterol is making and metabolizing hormones.

  胆固醇的一个极其重要的功能就是生成与代谢荷尔蒙。

  Hence, cholesterol levels naturally rise throughout pregnancy.

  因此,女人在怀孕期间,胆固醇水平会自然上升。

  A time in which the body is producing all sorts of hormones to manufacture a fresh human.

  接着,身体会产生出各种荷尔蒙用来孕育新的生命。

  A 1997 study of university students found that cholesterol levels rose proportional to the degree of examination stress.

  1997年,一项针对在校大学生的研究发现,身体中的胆固醇水平与考试引起的压力成正比。

  When the body is under stress, it produces cholesterol to make hormones that help deal with the stress.

  当人处于压力状态下时,身体会使用体内的胆固醇生成各种荷尔蒙来应付压力。

  If you are awakened by a burglar trying to break into your home at 4AM, but have a checkup later in the day, you can expect your cholesterol levels to be sky high and for your doctor to prescribe you a statin.

  假设一个人在凌晨4点被一个闯入其家中的窃贼惊醒,如果这个人当天就去检查身体,那么他或她的胆固醇水平肯定会非常高,而医生也会建议这个人服用他汀药。

  A cholesterol lowering drug.

  一种能降胆固醇的药物。

  Cholesterol's importance in hormone production also explains why men taking statins have been found to have lower testosterone.

  胆固醇对荷尔蒙生成至关重要,所以,那些长期服用他汀药物的男性患者,体内的睾丸酮水平都比较低。

  So, I hope we can agree that we need some cholesterol.

  如此说来,每个人多多少少都需要一些胆固醇。

  But just how good is less cholesterol?

  但是,胆固醇水平低了有什么好处呢?

  A 2001 paper documents the changes in 3572 elderly people's serum cholesterol concentrations over 20 years, and compared them with rates of death.

  一篇发表于2001年的论文详尽地记载了3572名老年人20年间的血清胆固醇数据,并将这项数据与对应的死亡率进行了比较。

  They found that in the group with the lowest cholesterol, they had the lowest rate of survival.

  研究人员发现,胆固醇水平最低的那组老年人,存活率也是最低的。

  The author's interpretation?

  这篇论文的作者是怎么说的呢?

  We have been unable to explain our results.

  我们一直无法解释我们的研究结果。

  You may have heard of the French Paradox.

  各位可能听说过法国悖论。

  A term coined in the late 1980's that refers to the particularly low obesity and heart disease rate in France despite people getting as much as 40% of their energy intake from fat with 16% of it being saturated fat.

  上个世纪80年代末期出现的一个词语,专门用于描述以下现象,法国人肥胖和心脏病发病率都特别低,但他们每天摄入的热量中,有40%来自于脂肪,其中16%是饱和脂肪。

  This is three times the amount of Saturated Fat the American Heart Association recommends.

  几乎是美国心脏病协会推荐量的3倍。

  One theory is that red wine is what allows French people to eat so much butter, cheese, cream, foie gras, and pate yet stay so healthy.

  有个理论是这样解释的,因为法国人经常喝红酒,所以他们就算吃很多黄油、奶酪、奶油、鹅肝及馅饼,身体也很健康。

  So maybe if French people lowered their dietary saturated fat and therefore cholesterol and drank the wine, they'd be even healthier.

  那么,如果法国人再少吃点儿饱和脂肪,也就是说再少吃些胆固醇,而且继续喝红酒的话,他们会更加健康。

  Well, a 1989 paper tracking the mortality rates of 92 elderly women in a nursing home in Paris found that rate of death was 5.2 times higher in those with the lowest cholesterol.

  1989年,一项追踪记载了巴黎某养老院92名老年妇女死亡率的研究发现,那些胆固醇水平最低的老年妇女,死亡率要高出5.2倍。

  But we know total cholesterol is somewhat outdated.

  但谁都知道,总胆固醇这项指标已经过时了。

  And now the concern is about LDL.

  如今大家更加关心LDL这一数据

  The so called bad cholesterol.

  所谓的坏胆固醇。

  As shown in a review written by multiple doctors in departments like Cell Biology, Chemistry, Endocrinology and Nutrition science.

  正如这篇由多位分别来自细胞生物学、化学、内分泌及营养学等部门医生所撰写的综述所示。

  Compared to other diets, when you go on a low carbohydrate diet, many biomarkers improve.

  和其他饮食相比,低碳水饮食可带来以下好处。

  Your weight goes down.

  减肥;

  Your hemoglobin A1c goes down.

  降低血红蛋白A1c;

  Glucose is down.

  降低血糖;

  Triglycerides are way down.

  降低甘油三酯水平。

  But this small increase in LDL may have some people worrying.

  但会稍微增加LDL的水平,这可能让某些人担忧。

  In this talk by Dr Peter Attia, he explains.

  在Peter Attia的这次演讲中,他解释道:

  We were taught that LDL cholesterol is the big risk, right?

  我们一直认为LDL胆固醇是一个巨大的风险因素,对吧?

  If your LDL cholesterol is high, you are at risk for heart disease.

  LDL胆固醇水平高,就有患心脏病的风险。

  This is a study that looked at 136,000 patients admitted to the hospital for a coronary artery event.

  这项研究对136000名因冠状动脉事件住院的患者进行了统计。

  And in these patients they looked at LDL cholesterol level.

  他们研究了这些患者的LDL胆固醇水平。

  And you can see that nearly 50% of them had what you would consider a low LDL cholesterol level.

  研究人员发现,近50%患者的LDL胆固醇水平,与常识认为的低水平一样低。

  Many scientists believe oxidized cholesterol to be the real problem.

  许多科学家认为,被氧化的胆固醇才是问题所在。

  As it initiates the process leading to the buildup of plaque in the arteries.

  因为它会导致血小板在动脉中堆积。

  So then, how does it become oxidized?

  那么,胆固醇是如何被氧化的呢?

  One way is, ironically, through the effects of consuming so called heart healthy vegetable oils.

  其中一个途径是,摄入所谓的对心脏健康有好处的菜油。

  The problem with the polyunsaturated fatty acids in vegetable oils is that because of their structure, they are unstable.

  菜油中包含的多元不饱和脂肪酸,化学结构极不稳定。

  Meaning, when exposed to oxygen or heat, they can form toxic byproducts and free radicals.

  意思是,当遇到氧或被加热时,多元不饱和脂肪酸极易产生有毒副产物及自由基。

  Free radicals which can oxidize cholesterol and thus lead to heart disease.

  自由基能氧化胆固醇,进而导致心脏病。

  So when you heat vegetable oils, free radicals as well as small lipid fragments called aldehydes can form.

  所以,当被加热时,菜油会产生自由基和一种名叫乙醛的脂质碎片。

  Aldehydes are well known to be toxic.

  众所周知,乙醛有毒。

  A hangover is suspected to be the result of alcohol being metabolized into acetaldehyde.

  酒醉就是由酒精的代谢产物乙醛造成的。

  Research by Martin Grootveld, a professor of bioanalytical chemistry and chemical pathology, showed that a typical meal of fish and chips, fried in vegetable oil, contained as much as 100 to 200 times more toxic aldehydes than the WHO safe daily limit.

  生物分析化学及化学病理教授Martin Grootveld研究发现,用菜油炸过的鱼和薯片,乙醛含量是世卫组织规定安全剂量的100-200倍。

  In contrast, frying butter, olive oil, coconut oil and lardproduced far lower levels of aldehydes.

  而用黄油、橄榄油、椰子油或猪油来炸,产生的乙醛相对要少很多。

  Maybe McDonald's ought to switch back to making their fries in beef tallow.

  麦当劳也许应该重新用牛油来炸薯条。

  As they did before the early 90's.

  就像上世纪90年代那样。

  And I thought when they first started out the french fries were very good.

  我觉得刚开始的时候,那些炸薯条还真不错。

  And then the nutritionists got at them.

  但自从采纳了营养师们的建议之后就变了。

  And it turned out to be erroneous that beef, tallow, fat was bad and...

  说什么牛油之类的脂肪对人健康有害。

  But, vegetable oils, for example corn oil, do an excellent job of lowering cholesterol.

  但是,菜油,比如说玉米油,确实能降胆固醇。

  Here's Dr David Diamond explaining a study on this from 1965.

  David Diamond博士在此谈到一项在1965年进行的研究:

  They had one group that was put on a low cholesterol, low fat diet.

  一组人采用的是低胆固醇低脂饮食。

  And they had a couple tablespoons of corn oil per day.

  他们每天摄入几茶匙玉米油。

  The other group as you see here, it says no advice was given to the control patients.

  另外一组人,也就是对照组的那些患者,饮食跟以前相比没有任何变化。

  And the outcome was quite nice as far as the cholesterol.

  实验结果挺不错的。

  So the study was a success as far as reducing cholesterol.

  从降低胆固醇这个角度来讲,研究非常成功。

  But then, when you look at the outcome.

  让我们来看看实验结果。

  The outcome is very straightforward.

  实验结果直截了当。

  To stay in the study you have to stay alive.

  要继续留在这项研究当中,前提就是得活着。

  So now when you look at these two groups and look at whose still in the study.

  那么这两组分别有多少人还继续留在这项研究当中呢。

  And so, the people on the low fat low cholesterol corn oil diet, only half of them were left.

  采用低脂低胆固醇饮食的这组患者,只有一半儿的人还活着。

  So twice as many people had heart attacks and died in those that had the corn oil.

  那些天天吃玉米油的人,心脏病发病率及死亡率是对照组的两倍。

  Another tragic consequence of replacing saturated fats with polyunsaturated vegetable oils is losing out on the heart protective effects of the fat soluble Vitamin, Vitamin K2, which is found in animal fats.

  将饱和脂肪换成富含多元不饱和脂肪的菜油,将带来另外一个恶果:失去脂溶性维生素K2的心脏保护作用,而动物油脂里富含维生素K2。

  The importance of vitamin K2 in heart health is shown by research on vitamin K2-dependent reactions.

  通过对维生素K2依赖化学反应的研究显示,维生素K2对心脏健康起着非常重要的作用。

  For example, gamma carboxylation, requires vitamin K as a cofactor.

  例如,Y羧化作用就需要维生素K作为辅助因子。

  And, if the glutamic acid residues of gla-containing proteins are not carboxylated, calcium cannot be properly bound.

  如果谷氨酸残基玻璃蛋白没有被羧化,钙就不能被绑定。

  You don't need to remember all that.

  这其中的细节无需牢记。

  But it simply means that Vitamin K2 is necessary to take the calcium out of your heart and put it into your bones.

  大家只需明白,要想把钙从心脏中移到骨骼当中去,离不开维生素K2的帮助。

  Calcium deposition in the vascular system is a consistent feature of heart disease.

  血管中出现的钙沉积现象,是心脏病最典型的症状。

  Interestingly, as this 2004 paper shows, vitamin K2 intake reduced mortality rates from heart disease and all causes, but vitamin K1, found in soybean and canola oil, did not.

  有趣的是,正如这篇发表于2004年的论文所示,摄入维生素K2有效地降低了心因性及全因性死亡率,而维生素K1,常见于大豆油和菜油,则没有这个效果。

  And, more recently we're seeing articles like this.

  近来,我们经常看到这样的文章。

  Let's take a brief moment to review how our eating patterns have changed following dietary recommendations.

  让我们简短地回顾一下,我们的饮食方式是如何受到膳食指南的影响而发生变化的。

  Less Whole Milk.

  全脂牛奶无人问津;

  More Skim Milk.

  脱脂牛奶越来越受欢迎;

  A little less butter.

  黄油越吃越少;

  Way more polyunsaturated oils.

  菜油消费急剧上升;

  Less eggs and Beef.

  鸡蛋牛肉吃得越来越少;

  And More lean Chicken and Turkey.

  而餐桌上的鸡肉火鸡肉愈发常见。

  Top it all off with a gigantic increase in sweet syrup.

  最大的变化是,糖浆用量飙升。

  You might still be wondering, if it's not the cholesterol, then what causes heart disease?

  大家可能还是很迷惑,如果不是胆固醇,那么到底是什么导致心脏病的呢?

  Let's take a look at a study of patients that have a condition called familial hypercholesterolaemia that causes them to have abnormally high cholesterol.

  在这项研究中,患者都有一种名叫家族性高脂血症的症状,体内胆固醇水平都反常的高。

  We're supposed to keep our LDL below 100 to be healthy.

  常识认为,LDL水平值低于100才算健康。

  But in these people, it was nearing 250.

  但在这些患者中,这个值都接近250。

  But, a portion of them had heart disease.

  但是,仅部分患者有心脏病。

  And the others did not.

  另外那些人却没有。

  There's no significant difference between total cholesterol, or the so called good or bad cholesterols.

  他们的总胆固醇,或者所谓的好或坏胆固醇水平,也没有太大的区别。

  So what was different?

  那什么有区别呢?

  Clotting factors.

  导致凝血的因素。

  Those diagnosed with heart disease had significantly greater baseline clotting factors.

  那些被确诊有心脏病的患者,动脉中出现凝血的可能性更高。

  Here's a study showing that Cardiovascular disease clearly increases with an increase in the clotting factor fibrinogen.

  这项研究显示,体内纤维蛋白原(一种导致凝血的因素)越多,罹患心血管疾病的风险就越高。

  As Dr David Diamond Points out, if we take a look at the primary risk factors for heart disease.

  正如David Diamond所指出的,所有的心脏病致病因素:

  Obesity.

  肥胖;

  Diabetes.

  糖尿病;

  High Blood Sugar.

  高血糖;

  Smoking.

  抽烟;

  Aging.

  衰老;

  Inflammation.

  炎症;

  Stress and Hypertension.

  压力以及高血压;

  These are all linked to platelet activation and clotting.

  都与血小板活化和凝血有关。

  The point I want to make is that at the very least, there are much better places to look than cholesterol in trying to prevent heart disease.

  我的意思是,要防治心脏病,与其纠缠着胆固醇不放,还不如多找找其他原因。

  For example, Dr Mann Kummerow suspected trans-fats to be the problem.

  例如,Mann Kummerow博士认为反式脂肪才是心脏病的罪魁祸首。

  Among other unhealthy effects, trans fats inhibit Vitamin K2 dependent processes, promoting calcium build up in the heart.

  在所有不健康因素中,反式脂肪会抑制那些依赖维生素K2的化学反应的发生,进而导致钙在心脏中沉积。

  Biochemist and two time Nobel Prize Winner Linus Pauling suspected Vitamin C deficiency to play a role as low Vitamin C stimulates the production of the heart disease promoting Lipoprotein a.

  生化学家Linus Pauling,两届诺贝尔奖获得者,认为维生素C缺乏可刺激人体产生大量可导致心脏病的a型脂蛋白。

  Another big suspect is chronic inflammation.

  另一个重要致病因素是长期的炎症。

  There are many factors that play into this very complex condition.

  心脏病有很多致病因素。

  And more and more data is showing that saturated fat in the context of a low carbohydrate diet is not one of them.

  但越来越多的研究数据表明,采用低碳水饮食时摄入的饱和脂肪绝不是这些因素中的一员。

  Despite some data like this on 1998 Europe suggesting that more saturated fat results in less heart disease.

  尽管有研究(如这项名为欧洲1998的研究)揭示,饱和脂肪吃得多,心脏病反而更少。

  The theory that saturated fat causes heart disease has prevailed for quite a while and radically changed the way we eat.

  但饱和脂肪导致心脏病的理论已经流行了相当长的时间,而且彻底地改变了我们的饮食习惯。


【看这里~】

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