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2020年11月新闻热词汇总

2020-12-01 09:35[双语阅读] 来源:中国日报网 评论:0条

  11月,国办发文解决老年人面临的“数字鸿沟”问题;直播打赏出新规,要求用户实名制;深海载人潜水器“奋斗者”号创下新纪录;教育部印发《研究生导师指导行为准则》;《区域全面经济伙伴关系协定》正式签署;华为出售荣耀全部资产;嫦娥五号探测器成功发射;我国贫困县全部脱贫;第七次全国人口普查展开;第三届进博会在上海举行;三峡工程建设任务全面完成;国务院联防联控机制发布《进口冷链食品预防性全面消毒工作方案》。

  进口冷链食品 imported cold-chain food

  国务院应对新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情联防联控机制11月9日向全国印发《进口冷链食品预防性全面消毒工作方案》。

  China is doubling down on efforts to stem the transmission of the novel coronavirus through imported cold-chain products, requiring thorough disinfection of such shipments before they come into contact with domestic workers.

  中国加大力度防范新冠病毒通过进口冷链食品传播,要求在进口冷链食品首次与我境内人员接触前实施预防性全面消毒处理。

  【单词讲解】

  这里的double down最初见于纸牌类赌博游戏,指的是玩家认为自己手里的牌好,所以“加倍下注”,后来这个短语就用来表示“冒风险做某事”。到了21世纪,这个短语的含义继续拓展,多用于商业、媒体、时政等领域,表示to work twice as hard,即“加大力度做某事”,常用的搭配是double down on something,比如:Fox is doubling down on its marketing efforts to give the movie a big boost.(福克斯正在加大市场推广力度,强推这部影片)。当然了,用在负面信息的语境中也是可以的,比如:Instead of learning from his mistakes, he's doubling down.(他没有从错误中吸取教训,而是开始变本加厉)。

  方案要求,在确保进口冷链食品安全的同时,提升口岸通关效率(improve customs clearance efficiency ),避免货物积压滞港(avoid overstocking),保障产业链供应链稳定(ensure the stability of the industrial and supply chain)。

  口岸环节

  For imported cold-chain foods that test negative for the virus, the interiors of cold chain vans and the outer packaging of the foods should be disinfected before being transported. The foods that test positive for COVID-19 will be returned or destroyed.

  病毒检测结果为阴性的进口冷链食品,对进口冷链食品的集装箱内壁、货物外包装实施消毒。检测结果为阳性的,按规定作退运或销毁处理。

  冷链运输和出入库环节

  The plan requires cold-chain logistics firms to strictly check customs clearance documents for imported cold-chain foods and disinfect vehicles, ships, and other transportation equipment. Workers who have direct contact with the foods should take protective measures.

  冷链物流企业严格查验海关通关单证,落实运输车辆船舶等装载运输装备消毒、一线工作人员个人防护等措施。

  Cold storages should keep records of imported cold-chain foods coming in and out, and the records should be kept for at least two years, read the plan.

  冷库接受进口冷链食品时,做好货物的出入库记录,相关资料和记录应至少留存2年。

  市场环节

  Sellers of imported cold-chain foods must present disinfection certificates before their products are allowed to enter the market, according to the document.

  加强进口冷链食品是否消毒的相关证明查验工作,防止未经过预防性全面消毒处理的进口冷链食品进入市场。

  Efforts should go into ensuring all the imported cold-chain foods entering the market are traceable, the plan said.

  做到所有进入市场的进口冷链食品来源可查、去向可追。

  载人潜水器 manned submersible

  China's deep-sea manned submersible Fendouzhe, or Striver, set a national diving record of 10,909 meters on Tuesday in the Challenger Deep, a 11,000-meter chasm located at the bottom of the Mariana Trench in the western Pacific Ocean, according to the Institute of Deep-sea Science and Engineering under the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  中国科学院深海科学与工程研究所的消息显示,中国深海载人潜水器“奋斗者”号11月10日在西太平洋马里亚纳海沟最深处成功下潜至10909米,创下国内新纪录。被称为“挑战者深渊”的马里亚纳海沟最深处深度为11000米。

  【知识点】

  所谓坐底,是在综合考虑潜水器速度、姿态和海底地质情况下,让潜水器人为地在海底着陆(land at the seabed)。

  在载人潜水器(manned submersible)方面,我国先后研制了“蛟龙”号、“深海勇士”号,“奋斗者”号是我国新一代载人潜水器。此外,我国还有“海斗”号、“海燕”号和“海翼”号等无人潜水器(unmanned submersible)。

  与其相关的“深潜技术”(deep-dive technology),指在深海环境利用深潜器(deep-diving submersible)进行水下考察(underwater exploration)、海底勘探(seabed exploration)、海底开发和打捞(seabed development and salvage)、救生(rescue)等任务的技术。

  The world's current deepest diving manned submersible is DSV Limiting Factor, which reached 10,927 meters last year.

  目前,世界上下潜最深的潜水器是“深潜限制因子”号,去年曾下潜至10927米的深度。

  本次海试任务采用了“双船”保障模式。

  The submersible, together with the mother ships Exploration 1 and Exploration 2, set off from Sanya, Hainan province, for the 10,000-meter-deep-sea diving operation on Oct 10.

  10月10日,“奋斗者”号与“探索一号”“探索二号”母船一起,从海南三亚启程开展万米级海试。

  The submersible first broke the 10,000-meter milestone by descending to 10,058 meters at the bottom of the Mariana Trench in the western Pacific Ocean on Oct 27.

  10月27日,“奋斗者”号在西太平洋马里亚纳海沟首次成功下潜突破1万米,达10058米。

  研究生导师指导行为准则 code of conduct for postgraduates' supervisors

  教育部日前印发《研究生导师指导行为准则》,明确提出“十不得”,为导师指导行为划定基本底线。

  Supervisors shoulder the primary responsibility in cultivating postgraduate students and the important task of nurturing high-end and innovative talent, the Ministry of Education said.

  教育部指出,研究生导师是研究生培养的第一责任人,肩负着为国家培养高层次创新人才的重要使命。

  【单词讲解】

  这里的supervisor就是在研究生阶段对学生提供选题指导、学术专业培养、论文指导等专业支持的“导师”;在职场,这个词多用来指某个部门或机构的“主管”。在教育领域,还有几个跟老师相关的词,这里也简单介绍一下:tutor多指“一对一指导教师”,我们常说的“家教”就可以用这个词表示;mentor一般也翻译为“导师、顾问”,不过这个词更强调“师徒传承”这层意思,除了专业方面的指导以外,也会在精神成长方面有引领作用,所以有时候也会称为“人生导师”。

  准则提出的“十不得”要求为:

  should not present speeches or actions that go against the Party's theories and policies, violate State laws and regulations, damage the image of the Party and the State, or deviate from the core socialist values.

  不得有违背党的理论和路线方针政策、违反国家法律法规、损害党和国家形象、背离社会主义核心价值观的言行;

  should not organize or participate in any activity that may compromise the fairness and impartiality of examination and admissions

  不得组织或参与任何有可能损害考试招生公平公正的活动;

  should not neglect to supervise and advise graduate students on their academic progress and the academic problems they face

  不得对研究生的学业进程及面临的学业问题疏于监督和指导;

  should not ask students to do things irrelevant to their academic study, scientific research and social service

  不得要求研究生从事与学业、科研、社会服务无关的事务;

  should not purposely delay students' graduation

  不得违规随意拖延研究生毕业时间;

  should not violate the academic standards or harm the academic research rights and interests of graduate students

  不得有违反学术规范、损害研究生学术科研权益等行为;

  should not submit dissertations that do not meet academic standards and quality requirements for review and defense

  不得将不符合学术规范和质量要求的学位论文提交评审和答辩;

  should not make misrepresentation, fraudulent claim, or misappropriation of research funds or other expenses in the name of graduate students

  不得以研究生名义虚报、冒领、挪用、侵占科研经费或其他费用;

  should not humiliate students

  不得侮辱研究生人格;

  should not have inappropriate relationships with students

  不得与研究生发生不正当关系。

  准则强调,对违反准则的导师,培养单位要依规采取约谈、限招(limit the number of students they can supervise)、停招直至取消导师资格(disqualify them from supervising any students)等处理措施;对情节严重、影响恶劣的,一经查实,要坚决清除出教师队伍(be banned from teaching);涉嫌违法犯罪的移送司法机关处理(transferred to judicial authorities)。

  冬季疫情防控 epidemic prevention and control in the winter

  国家卫健委副主任李斌在新闻发布会上表示,目前全球疫情加速蔓延,我国面临境外输入病例导致本地传播风险增大。

  China is likely to see sporadic outbreaks of scattered infections throughout the winter and to experience regional outbreaks. To tackle the risks, the country will carry out a public health and hygiene campaign in the coming seasons to help prevent COVID-19 and other seasonal infectious diseases, Li said at a press briefing.

  李斌表示,今冬我国将处于疫情零星散发状态,局部地区可能发生聚集性疫情。为了应对这些风险,我国将在冬春季开展公共卫生专项行动,防止新冠肺炎以及其他季节性传染病的传播。

  【单词讲解】

  这里的sporadic是形容词,表示“happening sometimes; not regular or continuous”,即“偶尔发生的;不规律、不连续的”,与occasional意思接近,不过sporadic的意思要比occasional略广,它既可以表示“零星的”,也可以表示“偶然的,不规律的”,但occasional通常只用来表示“偶然的,不规律的”。比如:His job requires occasional trips to the West Coast.这句话中的occasional就可以用sporadic来替换,但是表达“零星的病例”sporadic outbreaks的时候,我们通常不会用occasional来替换。

  面对这一形势,流感疫苗接种、冷链食品进口、跨境活动怎样更精准地“防”?

  流感疫苗接种

  China's flu vaccine production this year has doubled compared with last year, reaching a five-year high.

  今年国家流感疫苗生产和去年相比翻了一番,产量是近五年来最多的一年。

  About 25 million doses of flu vaccines had been used nationwide to vaccinate people by Nov 9, which is almost equal to last year's total.

  截至11月9日,全国流感疫苗接种量约2500万剂,已经接近去年的接种量。

  加强检测、消杀

  The National Health Commission will intensify nucleic acid tests on staff at quarantine sites, workers involved in handling cold-chain imports and other imported goods, in tandem with regular tests on high-risk groups, including close contacts of confirmed cases, incoming passengers and people with a fever.

  在继续做好针对密接人群、入境旅客以及发热人员等高风险人群常规检测的同时,国家卫健委将加大对隔离场所工作人员、进口冷链食品及进口货物接触人员的核酸检测力度。

  In addition, tests on environmental samples taken from medical institutions, agricultural markets and cold-chain facilities will be stepped up, he said, adding that comprehensive disinfection on imported cold products will be enforced.

  进一步开展医疗机构、农贸市场、冷链食品相关环境等的核酸检测,加强对进口冷链产品的全面消毒。

  Virus control measures at key venues deemed at higher risk of the virus's spread, including schools, nursing homes and charity facilities for people with disabilities, should be strengthened to stamp out potential infection clusters.

  聚焦学校、养老和残疾人福利等病毒传播高风险场所,落实疫情防控的相关制度和措施,严防聚集性疫情发生。

  跨境活动谨慎安排

  "We do not recommend people touring abroad. For those who have to go abroad for humanitarian purposes or other reasons, it is important for them to take good self-protective measures and have full knowledge of COVID-19 prevention and control policies at their countries of destination", Luo Zhaohui, vice-foreign minister, said at a news conference.

  外交部副部长罗照辉表示,不主张大家出国旅行旅游。由于一些人道主义或不得已的原因必须要出国的,做好防护,充分了解目的地国防疫政策,这一点非常重要。

  Li said control and prevention efforts will only be strengthened due to higher risks of imported infections during the winter, which is also a peak season for other respiratory infections.

  李斌表示,冬季病毒输入风险更高,同时也是其他呼吸道疾病高发期,疫情防控举措只会更严格。

  区域全面经济伙伴关系协定 Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

  After eight years of negotiations, 15 Asia-Pacific countries signed the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) on Nov 15, the world's biggest trade pact. The agreement involves all 10 member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and five of its major trading partners-China, Japan, South Korea, Australia and New Zealand.

  经过八年谈判,亚太地区15个国家于11月15日签署《区域全面经济伙伴关系协定》(RCEP)。该协定是全球最大的贸易协定,参与国家包括东盟十国及其五个主要贸易伙伴:中国、日本、韩国、澳大利亚及新西兰。

  出售荣耀 Honor brand sold

  11月17日,多家企业在《深圳特区报》发布联合声明,深圳市智信新信息技术有限公司已与华为投资控股有限公司签署了收购协议,完成对荣耀品牌相关业务资产的全面收购。出售后,华为不再持有新荣耀公司的任何股份。

  Over 30 agents and dealers of Huawei's Honor brand have acquired all business assets of the budget cellphone brand, according to the joint statement.

  联合声明指出,30余家荣耀代理商、经销商完成对荣耀品牌相关业务资产的全面收购。荣耀是华为旗下一款经济型手机品牌。

  【单词讲解】

  这里的budget cellphone中的budget跟航空领域的budget airlines的用法一样,都是形容词,表示“价格低廉的,花钱少的”。Budget更常见的用法是名词或动词,表示“预算”或“做预算、规划”,比如government budget(政府预算),a weekly budget for a family of five(五口之家一周的花销预算);budget your time wisely(合理规划你的时间),budget a new hospital(拨出预算建一所新医院)等。

  声明指出,

  "This acquisition represents a market-driven investment made to save Honor's industry chain. It is the best solution to protect the interests of Honor's consumers, channel sellers, suppliers, partners and employees," according to the joint statement.

  此次收购既是荣耀相关产业链发起的一场自救和市场化投资,能最大化地保障消费者、渠道、供应商、合作伙伴及员工的利益。

  The acquisition is a multi-win move for the industry, says the statement, adding that all shareholders of the new Honor company will fully support the development of the Honor brand, enabling it to leverage the industry's advantages in resources, brands, production, channels, and services, and more effectively compete in the marketplace.

  此次收购更是一次产业互补,全体股东将全力支持新荣耀,让新荣耀在资源、品牌、生产、渠道、服务等方面汲取各方优势,更高效地参与到市场竞争中。

  The change in ownership will not impact Honor's development direction or the stability of its executive and talent teams, allowing the company to continuously consolidate its foundation for success, says the statement.

  所有权的变化不会影响荣耀发展的方向,荣耀高层及团队将保持稳定,继续夯实荣耀成功的基石。

  荣耀品牌诞生于2013年,始终面向年轻人,坚持中低端价位,七年间发展成为年出货量超七千万部(annual shipments of over 70 million)的互联网手机品牌。

  5G连接数 5G connections

  5G connections in China are expected to reach 200 million by the end of 2020, contributing to more than 85 percent of the global total, according to a recent analysis by GSMA, an international association of mobile operators.

  全球移动通信系统协会(GSMA)近期分析显示,中国的5G连接数预计在2020年将达到2亿,占全球5G连接总数85%以上。

  【知识点】

  5G(5th generation mobile communication technology),即第五代移动通信技术,将提升移动网络的作用,不仅让人与人之间互联,更让机器、物体和终端之间互联互控。

  5G是一个全新的通讯技术,具有高速率(high data rate)、大容量(high capacity)、低时延(short latency)的特性,这使得5G技术在物联网(Internet of Things)、智慧家居(smart home)、远程服务(remote service)、外场支援(field support)、虚拟现实(virtual reality)、增强现实(augmented reality)等领域有了新的应用。

  分析指出,

  As of September, 107 carriers have commercialized 5G networks in 47 countries and regions. It is expected that 149 carriers will commercialize 5G networks in 57 countries and regions by the end of 2020.

  截至2020年9月,已有107家运营商在47个国家和地区商用5G网络。预计2020年底,将有149家运营商在57个国家和地区商用5G网络。

  By the end of 2025, 410 carriers are expected to commercialize 5G networks in 123 countries and regions.

  预计2025年底,将有410家运营商在123个国家和地区商用5G网络。

  2019年10月31日,三大运营商公布5G商用套餐(5G data plans),并于11月1日正式上线,标志着中国正式进入5G商用时代。

  数据显示,截至9月底,中国5G基站(5G base station)累计超过69万个,基本实现地市级5G覆盖,今年50万个5G基站的建设目标提前完成,5G累计终端连接数已超过1.6亿。

  5G technologies have been utilized in more than 20 industries including marine, power grids, healthcare and manufacturing.

  5G技术已被应用于海洋、电力网络、医疗及制造等20多个行业。

  By the end of September, China's three major telecom operators had launched more than 5,000 innovation projects and signed around 1,000 5G business contracts.

  截至9月底,三大运营商已推出5000余个创新工程,签署了约1000个5G商业合约。

  全国人口普查 national census

  China on Sunday started its seventh national census, with about 7 million census takers going door to door to document demographic changes. The census collects data including the name, ID number, gender, marital status, education, and profession of Chinese citizens.

  11月1日,第七次全国人口普查正式开始登记,700多万普查人员走入千家万户,登记普查信息。这次普查登记包括姓名、身份证号、性别、婚姻状态、受教育程度以及职业等信息。

  【知识点】

  全国人口普查(national census)是指在国家统一规定的时间内(within a defined period),按照统一的方法、统一的项目、统一的调查表和统一的标准时点(using the same method, categories and survey forms at a set time),对全国人口普遍地、逐户逐人地进行的一次性调查登记。

  普查对象是普查标准时点在中华人民共和国境内的自然人(the natural persons living within the territory of the People's Republic of China on the standard time point of census)以及在中华人民共和国境外但未定居的中国公民(the Chinese citizens who are outside the territory of the People's Republic of China but have not become permanent residents of the other country),不包括在中华人民共和国境内短期停留的境外人员(foreigners who are making a short-term stay within the territory of the People's Republic of China shall be excluded)。

  首次采取自主填报

  When census takers knock on your door, you can answer the questions by registering the information directly on the smart devices. Or,the census taker will offer you an account number and a QR code so that you can register your information within a certain time.

  普查员上门时,住户可以直接在普查智能设备上填报信息,也可以请普查员提供自主填报的二维码及自主填报码与密码,在规定时间内完成自主填报。

  采用多项技术保护公民隐私

  此次普查采用互联网云技术、云服务和云应用部署,按照国家网络安全等级保护三级标准要求进行安全管理。

  All information collected is filled in through the internet and is directly uploaded to the national database in real-time, eliminating possible human interference.

  采集的所有信息通过互联网填报,数据会被实时上传至处理中心,消除了人为干预的可能性。

  Both the mobile end and the server end have adopted highly strict data encryption and desensitization technology so that personal information cannot be hacked or disclosed during the process of data transmission.

  信息采集的移动端和服务器端采取了严密的数据加密和脱敏技术,个人信息不会在数据传输过程中泄露。

  杂交水稻 hybrid rice

  11月2日,湖南省衡阳市衡南县清竹村,由“杂交水稻之父”袁隆平团队研发的杂交水稻双季亩产突破1500公斤大关,其中晚稻品种为第三代杂交水稻。

  Despite unfavorable weather conditions this year, the two harvests combined-consisting of early-season and late-season crops-surpassed 22.5 tons per hectare, realizing the goal set earlier this year by renowned agricultural expert Yuan Longping, who has spearheaded research into hybrid rice strains.

  虽然今年天气条件不利,但是早晚稻双季亩产仍然超过1500公斤(相当于每公顷22.5吨),达到了著名农业专家袁隆平今年早些时候定下的目标。袁隆平一直致力于杂交水稻品种的研究。

  【单词讲解】

  这里的harvest用作名词表示“(农作物的)收成”,与yield可以互换使用。Yield这个词可以用作名词和动词,表示“产量、收益”或者“屈服、投降、退让”等意思,比如:yield to someone/something(屈服于某人或某事),yield to impulse(一时冲动),yield to pressure(屈服于压力);yield a profit(获得收益),lucrative yield(丰厚的收益),average annual yield(平均年产量)等。

  “杂交水稻”hybrid rice中的hybrid是一个用法很多的名词,除了表示“(动植物的)杂交品种”以外,还可以表示“(使用多种动力来源的)混合动力车”,比如:Most car manufacturers now offer hybrids.(大多数汽车厂商现在都提供混合动力车型)。

  对于这个产量,90岁的袁隆平院士在与测产现场5G视频连线时表示:

  The fresh record means a 1-hectare hybrid rice field can feed as many as 75 people.

  新纪录意味着一亩地可以养活5个人(相当于一公顷地养活75个人)。

  I am more than excited and extremely satisfied with the results.

  这个结果我非常满意,很激动。

  The next goal is to promote the experiences of Hengnan county and plant the advanced rice variety in other rice-producing regions in China, contributing to safeguarding the country's food security.

  我们下面进一步把品种、经验在全国其他稻米产区推广开来,为国家的粮食安全作出新的贡献。

  据了解,第三代杂交水稻技术被袁隆平看作是突破亩产“天花板”的关键。专家认为,第三代杂交水稻的“基因强大”,具有高产(high-yielding)、抗病(disease-resistant)、抗寒(cold resistant)、抗倒(lodging resistant)等特点。

  杂交水稻技术的进步,为解决我国粮食问题做出了重要贡献。

  China now feeds around 20 percent of the world's population with less than 9 percent of the world's arable land.

  中国现在用全球不到9%的耕地养活全世界约20%的人口。

  Yuan, who developed the world's first hybrid rice in the 1970s, has set multiple world records in hybrid rice yields in previous years, making great contributions to the food security of China and the world.

  袁隆平在上世纪70年代研发出全世界第一个杂交水稻品种,过去几年间,他研发的杂交水稻产量多次创造世界纪录,为中国和全世界的粮食安全作出了巨大贡献。

  第三届中国国际进口博览会 the third China International Import Expo

  11月4日,第三届中国国际进口博览会(the third China International Import Expo)暨虹桥国际经济论坛(the Hongqiao International Economic Forum)开幕式将在上海举行。

  看点一:“进博朋友圈”扩大,参展企业质量更高

  Though affected by COVID-19, this year's CIIE is attracting global exhibitors in droves. Nearly 50 Fortune 500 and industry-leading companies are participating for the first time, as well as international debuts of hundreds of new products, technologies and services.

  尽管受到全球新冠肺炎疫情影响,但各国企业参展积极踊跃。近50家世界500强和行业龙头企业首次参展,还有数百个新产品、新技术和新服务全球首发。

  【知识点】

  中国国际进口博览会(China International Import Expo,CIIE),是迄今为止世界上第一个以进口为主题的国家级展会(the world’s first import expo held at the national level),是国际贸易发展史上一大创举。举办中国国际进口博览会,是中国着眼于推动新一轮高水平对外开放作出的重大决策(an important decision made by China to pursue a new round of high-level opening-up),是中国主动向世界开放市场的重大举措。这体现了中国支持多边贸易体制、推动发展自由贸易的一贯立场(China’s consistent position of supporting the multilateral trading system and promoting free trade),是中国推动建设开放型世界经济、支持经济全球化的实际行动(a concrete action by China to advance an open world economy and support economic globalization)。

  看点二:六大展区“硬核”展品吸睛

  The expo's total exhibition area has been expanded by 30,000 square meters, covering six exhibitions-food and agricultural products, automobiles, equipment, consumer goods, healthcare and services.

  本届进博会总展览面积比上届扩大近3万平方米,设立六大展区:食品及农产品展区、汽车展区、技术装备展区、消费品展区、医疗器械及医药保健展区、服务贸易展区。

  看点三:四大专区紧扣市场热点

  Four new special sections will debut including public health and epidemic prevention, energy saving and environmental protection, smart transportation and sporting/gaming.

  第三届进博会新设公共卫生防疫、节能环保、智慧出行和体育用品及赛事等4个专区。

  看点四:采购商达40万人,结构进一步优化

  Altogether, 112,000 domestic companies from across the country have formed 39 trade missions, and total registered professional buyers reached 400,000.

  今年专业采购商达到40万人,共组建39个交易团,注册单位11.2万家。

  Two-thirds of them come from the country's three major economic engines-the Yangtze River Delta, the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, and nearly 1,400 of the companies import more than $100 million in goods annually.

  报名注册的采购商中,有三分之二来自于长三角、粤港澳大湾区以及京津冀地区,年进口额1亿美元以上的有近1400家。

  看点五:线上与线下结合,商业与文化交融

  Themed on dealing with common challenges through collaboration, the Hongqiao International Economic Forum will be held during the expo, with some high-level politicians, business executives and experts attending the forum online.

  进博会期间,将围绕合作应对挑战主题举办虹桥国际经济论坛,一些政府高官、企业高管以及专家等将通过线上方式出席论坛。

  An Italy business delegation will attend the third CIIE with 55 world intangible cultural heritages and more than 80 exhibitors.

  意大利商务代表团将带着该国55个由联合国教科文组织认定的世界文化遗产和88个参展商参加本届进博会。

  看点六:强化疫情防控,严格管理食品冷链

  All expo participants will need to take COVID-19 testing, temperature checks and submit health declarations. Visitors from overseas will undergo a 14-day quarantine.

  所有参展参会人员进行全员核酸检测,体温检查并提交健康申明。入境人员需进行14天隔离。

  In the expo venue, five medical stations and 26 temporary observation zones will be stationed by 400 medics. Across the city, 33 hospitals were designated to handle any emergency cases from the expo.

  在场馆内设置5个医疗站,此外还增设了26个临时观察点,共有400名医护人员值守。上海还指定了33家医疗机构作为定点医院应对突发情况。

  和往届进博会不同,今年进博会展区内将不零售冷冻生鲜食品(fresh & frozen food),禁止试吃未经“全熟加工”的冷冻生鲜食品。

  三峡工程 the Three Gorges project

  China's Ministry of Water Resources and the National Development and Reform Commission announced the official full completion of the project's construction, saying the Three Gorges project has met all design requirements, has a good overall performance, and fulfills the key roles of flood control, electricity generation, shipping and water-resource utilization.

  水利部、国家发展改革委公布,三峡工程建设任务全面完成,工程质量满足规程规范和设计要求,运行持续保持良好状态,防洪、发电、航运、水资源利用等综合效益全面发挥。

  【知识点】

  三峡工程(the Three Gorges project)全称为长江三峡水利枢纽工程。整个工程包括一座混凝重力式大坝(concrete gravity structure),泄水闸(sluice gate),一座堤后式水电站(hydropower station at dam toe),一座永久性通航船闸(navigation lock)和一架升船机(lifter)。三峡工程建筑由大坝、水电站厂房和通航建筑物三大部分组成。大坝坝顶总长3035米,坝高185米。三峡工程是迄今为止世界上规模最大的水利枢纽工程(the world's biggest water conservancy project)和综合效益最广泛的水电工程(a hydropower project with widespread benefits)。

  监测表明,拦河大坝及泄洪消能(flood drainage)、引水发电(water diversion and power generation)、通航(navigation)及茅坪溪防护工程等主要建筑物工作性态正常,机电系统及设备、金属结构设备运行安全稳定。

  防洪

  By the end of August, the dam had held back 180 billion cubic meters of water during flood seasons. It saw inflows of over 70,000 cubic meters per second in 2010,2012 and this year and reduced flood peaks by about 40 percent, the review said, greatly easing flood-control pressure in downstream rice-growing areas.

  至2020年8月底,三峡水库累计拦洪总量超过1800亿立方米。2010年、2012年、2020年入库最大洪峰均超过70000立方米每秒,经过水库拦蓄,削减洪峰约40%,极大减轻了长江中下游稻米产区防洪压力。

  发电

  The world's largest hydropower station, the dam had generated over 1.35 trillion kilowatt-hours of electricity by August, contributing to electricity supply in Central and East China and in Guangdong province.

  三峡电站是世界上总装机容量最大的水电站。截至2020年8月底,三峡电站累计发电量超过13500亿千瓦时,有力支持了华东、华中、广东等地区电力供应。

  水资源利用

  During dry seasons, discharges have been raised to more than 5,500 cubic meters per second, providing more than 20 billion cubic meters of water a year for the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

  三峡水库每年枯水季节下泄流量提高到5500立方米每秒以上,为长江中下游补水200多亿立方米。

  By the end of August, the reservoir had provided replenishment for 2,267 days, with a total water supply of 289.4 billion cubic meters, optimizing production, living conditions and the ecology of the river's middle and lower reaches, the review said.

  截至2020年8月底累计补水2267天,补水总量2894亿立方米,改善了中下游地区生产、生活和生态用水条件。

  【单词讲解】

  这里的replenishment表示“the act of filling something up again by replacing what has been used”,也就是“补给;重新补足”等意思,比如: product replenishment(补货),Bone marrow plays an important role in the constant replenishment of red blood cells.(骨髓在持续补充红细胞方面发挥重要作用)。

  生态与环境保护

  Electricity produced by the power station was equivalent to that from burning 430 million metric tons of standard coal, leading to a significant reduction in carbon dioxide emissions.

  至2020年8月底,三峡电站发出的优质清洁电力能源相当于节约标准煤4.30亿吨,节能减排效益显著。

  航运

  The project has also significantly improved navigation conditions and bolstered shipping capacity and freight volume in the Yangtze, the review said. By August, some 1.48 billion tons of cargo had passed through the Three Gorges Dam, boosting development in the Yangtze's economic belt.

  三峡工程显著改善了川江航道通航条件,过闸货运量快速增长,截至2020年8月底,累计过闸货运量14.8亿吨,有力推动了长江经济带发展。

  搬迁安置

  The production and living environments of the 1.31 million people who were relocated to make way for the Three Gorges project have been greatly improved, and infrastructure and public service facilities in the reservoir area have developed rapidly, it said.

  131万搬迁安置移民生产生活状况显著改善,库区基础设施、公共服务设施实现跨越式发展。

  流失文物 lost cultural relics

  11月18日,国家文物局副局长关强在国家文物局召开的例行新闻发布会上表示,今年1月以来,国家文物局与外交、海关等部门紧密合作,在中国驻英国使馆大力支持下,历时10个月,成功将流失英国25年的68件走私文物追索回国。

  The cultural relics date from the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC) to the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), encompassing a variety of items, mainly ceramics. They are from provinces including Jiangxi, Anhui, Fujian, Henan, Shaanxi, Hebei and Guizhou.

  这些文物时间跨度从春秋到清代,质地多为陶瓷,地域分布江西、安徽、福建、河南、陕西、河北、贵州等。

  【单词讲解】

  我们常见的cultural relics里面的relic指“an object, tradition, or system from the past that continues to exist”,即“从过去流传至今的物件、传统或体系”,在考古领域多指“从过去遗留下来的物件,没有现实用处,但多具有历史意义”或者“遗迹、遗物”等。Artifact,在英式英语中写作artefact,一般指“手工制品”,在考古领域则多指挖掘出来的“手工制作的(工具、武器、饰品等具有考古或历史价值的)文物”。因此在表示“历史文物”的时候,relic涵盖的范围要比artifact要广一些,而且这两个词一般都用复数形式。

  Their return brings an end to a quarter-century of China's efforts to retrieve lost cultural relics from overseas, said Guan Qiang, deputy director of the administration.

  国家文物局副局长关强表示,这批文物的回归,为中国政府持续25年的跨国文物追索行动画上圆满句号。

  【单词讲解】

  这里用常见词return表示“返还、回归”很好理解,更加正式的表达可以用repatriate historical artifacts或者名词形式repatriation of historical artifacts,repatriate表示send something back to its home country(把...送回国),如果是repatriate someone则表示“遣返、遣送回国”。

  “追索流散文物”可以用retrieve lost cultural relics/historical artifacts表示。Retrieve 表示“找回,重新获得”,比如追讨官员赃款(retrieve officials' illegal gains),找到遗体(retrieve bodies)等。

  1989年,中国接受联合国教科文组织1970年《关于禁止和防止非法进出口文化财产和非法转让其所有权的方法的公约》(the 1970 UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property),之后与20多个国家就打击非法文物交易以及流失文物追索返还签署双边协议(bilateral agreements on fighting the illegal transfer of and facilitating the repatriation of relics)。

  金砖国家新工业革命伙伴关系 BRICS partnership on the new industrial revolution

  President Xi Jinping said that China will work with other parties to flesh out the BRICS Partnership on New Industrial Revolution at a faster pace, adding that China will set up an innovation center for such a partnership in Xiamen, Fujian province to advance cooperation on policy coordination, personnel training and project development. Xi made the remarks on Nov 17 when addressing the 12th BRICS Summit via video link.

  金砖国家领导人第十二次会晤11月17日以视频方式举行,国家主席习近平发表讲话。他表示,中方愿同各方一道加快建设金砖国家新工业革命伙伴关系。我们将在福建省厦门市建立金砖国家新工业革命伙伴关系创新基地,开展政策协调、人才培养、项目开发等领域合作。

  暴雪 snowstorm

  受往年同期罕见的强大暖湿气流影响,11月19日中国东北及内蒙古地区出现雨雪冰冻大风天气。

  Snowstorms in China's northernmost province of Heilongjiang have grounded more than 100 flights and forced expressways and schools to be closed, local authorities said.

  当地政府表示,黑龙江省暴雪已导致100多个航班取消,高速路和学校也被迫关闭。

  【单词讲解】

  这里的ground用作动词,表示“使...停留在地面(港口)不能移动”,多用于轮船、飞机等运输设备,所以上面这句话我们也可以说more than 100 flights were grounded because of the snowstorm。另外,经常看美剧的同学应该能注意到,ground有时候也用来表示家长对做错事的孩子进行惩罚,不让他们出去玩,就是“禁足”,比如:My parents grounded me for a week(我爸妈让我禁足一个星期)或I am grounded for a week(我被禁足一个星期)。

  Snowfall of up to 25.8 mm was recorded in cities including Harbin and Mudanjiang, bringing a blanket of snow 17 cm deep in some places, according to the province's meteorological center.

  黑龙江省气象中心的数据显示,哈尔滨、牡丹江等地的降雪达到25.8毫米,部分地区的积雪厚度达到17厘米。

  In Jilin province, heavy rains and strong winds have forced many cities to close their primary and middle schools and kindergartens for one or two days, including in the capital city Changchun, as well as Songyuan and Baicheng.

  强降雨和大风迫使吉林省长春市、松原市以及白城市的中小学及幼儿园关闭一至两天。

  The Changchun Longjia International Airport has been closed, with a total of 126 flights canceled and 17 flights delayed as of 3 pm. Train services at three major railway stations in Changchun have also been partially closed.

  长春龙嘉国际机场关闭,截至11月19日下午3点,126个航班取消,17个航班延误。长春市三个主要火车站也部分关闭。

  Police in Liaoning province have imposed traffic restrictions on expressways due to the snow, while some highways have been closed.

  受降雪影响,辽宁省警方对高速公路采取限行措施,部分道路关闭。

  The National Meteorological Center said snow will continue to lower temperatures by 8 to 10 degrees, but will taper off from Friday through Sunday. The snow system will move toward Northwest and North China, including the Xinjiang Uygur and Ningxia Hui autonomous regions, Beijing and Gansu province. Heavy rainfall is expected in some areas.

  中央气象台表示,降雪将导致气温下降8到10度,不过从11月20日至22日,降雪将逐渐减少,并转移至西北、华北的新疆、宁夏、甘肃以及北京等地。部分地区将出现强降雨。

  【单词讲解】

  这里的taper off是一个固定搭配的短语,表示“逐渐减少、变小”等意思,比如:Her voice tapered off as she realized everyone was listening.(当她意识到大家都在听时,她的声音就越来越小了)。Taper作为动词,本身也表示“逐渐变小、变细、变窄”等意思,比如:The cave tapered to a narrow passageway.(那个洞穴慢慢变成了一条窄窄的通道)。

  嫦娥五号 Chang'e-5

  11月24日4时30分,我国在中国文昌航天发射场,用长征五号遥五运载火箭成功发射探月工程嫦娥五号探测器。

  Chang'e-5, comprising an orbiter,a returner, a lander, and an ascender, with a total takeoff mass of 8.2 tonnes, is expected to accomplish unmanned rendezvous and docking in lunar orbit.

  “嫦娥五号”探测器起飞重量8.2吨,包括轨道器、返回器、着陆器、上升器四个部分,将在月球轨道实施无人交会对接。

  【知识点】

  “嫦娥五号”的英文是Chang'e-5,而我国首个载人飞船“神舟五号”的英文是Shenzhou V。这是因为,在英文报道中,无人航空飞行器、卫星、火箭等(unmanned space vessels, satellites, rockets)的编号一般用阿拉伯数字,而载人飞行器(manned spacecraft)的编号一般用罗马数字。

  飞天后要进行一系列复杂操作

  After it enters the lunar orbit, the lander-ascender combination will separate from the orbiter-returner combination.

  嫦娥五号进入月球轨道后,着陆器和上升器组合体将与轨道器和返回器组合体分离。

  While the orbiter-returner orbits about 200 km above the lunar surface, the lander-ascender will touch down on the northwest region of Oceanus Procellarum, also known as the Ocean of Storms, on the near side of the moon in early December.

  着陆器和上升器组合体在距离月球表面200公里处留轨运行,着陆器承载上升器计划12月初在月球西北面的“风暴洋”区域登陆。

  About 2 kg of samples are expected to be collected and sealed in a container in the spacecraft.

  嫦娥五号将在月球收集2公斤样本,并进行密封封装。

  Then the ascender will take off with the sample, and dock with the orbiter-returner in orbit. After the samples are transferred to the returner, the ascender will separate from the orbiter-returner.

  之后,上升器带着采集的月球样品起飞上升,与轨返组合体对接。样本转送至返回器后,上升器会与轨返组合体分离。

  The combination of orbiter and returner will then depart the lunar orbit and return to Earth's orbit, where the pair will break up and the returner will conduct a host of complicated maneuvers to return to a preset landing site in North China's Inner Mongolia autonomous region in mid-December.

  接下来,轨返组合体将离开月球轨道,返回地球轨道,并在那里实施分离,返回器将进行一系列复杂的操控,于12月中旬在内蒙古自治域的预定地点着陆。

  The entire mission is scheduled to last about 23 days, according to the China National Space Administration.

  国家航天局表示,整个任务预计持续约23天。

  嫦娥五号与以往的中国探月任务有什么不同?

  中国探月工程是我国启动的第一个探月工程,于2004年1月23日正式启动,分为绕、落、回三部曲。

  1、“绕(orbiting)”就是发射月球卫星,嫦娥一号和嫦娥二号已经实现。

  2、“落(landing)”就是在月球表面软着陆,嫦娥三号已实现在月球的正面软着陆,“嫦娥四号”也已实现在月球背面软着陆,并在月球背面开展科学探测工作,在全球尚属首次。

  3、“回(sample returning)”就是从月球表面采样返回地球,就是本次嫦娥五号执行的任务,计划把2千克的月壤样品带回地球。

  嫦娥五号任务的科学目标主要是开展着陆点区域形貌探测和地质背景勘察(investigate the landing site's geological and topographic features),获取与月球样品相关的现场分析数据,建立现场探测数据与实验室分析数据之间的联系;对月球样品进行系统、长期的实验室研究,分析月壤结构、物理特性、物质组成(enable scientists to analyze the lunar samples' structure and physical traits),深化月球成因和演化历史的研究(deepen their research into the moon's origin and evolution)。

  贫困县全部脱贫 all impoverished counties removed from the poverty list

  China has achieved the feat of removing all 832 counties from the country's poverty list. The last nine impoverished counties, all in southwest China's Guizhou province, have eliminated absolute poverty, the provincial government announced on Nov 23. An assessment conducted by third-party agencies earlier this month showed that the overall incidence of poverty in the nine counties in Guizhou had been reduced to zero percent, and the satisfaction rate among locals was over 99 percent.

  11月23日,贵州省宣布剩余的9个贫困县消除绝对贫困。至此,我国832个贫困县全部脱贫。第三方机构本月初进行的评估显示,贵州省这9个县的贫困发生率已降为0,群众认可度超过99%。

  数字鸿沟 digital divide

  11月24日,国务院办公厅公布《关于切实解决老年人运用智能技术困难的实施方案》,针对老年人运用智能技术遇到的种种“痛点”“难点”,提出解决方案。

  The plan sets objectives for work in the 2020-2022 period focusing on seven types of services and scenarios most frequently used by or facing the elderly, such as day-to-day traveling, medical treatment, recreational activities, and civic services.

  方案聚焦老年人日常生活涉及的出行、就医、文娱、办事等7类高频事项和服务场景,提出了2020至2022年期间的工作目标。

  By the end of 2022, the level and convenience of smart services for the elderly will be significantly improved, online and offline services will be better coordinated, and long-term mechanisms bridging the digital divide will be established, according to the plan.

  方案提出,到2022年底前,老年人享受智能化服务水平显著提升、便捷性不断提高,线上线下服务更加高效协同,解决老年人面临的“数字鸿沟”问题的长效机制基本建立。

  【单词讲解】

  这里的digital divide就是我们所说的“数字鸿沟”或“信息鸿沟”,也可以用digital gap来表示,指在全球数字化进程(global digitalization)中,不同国家、地区、行业、企业、社区之间,由于对信息、网络技术的拥有程度、应用程度以及创新能力的差别而造成的信息落差及贫富进一步两极分化的趋势。

  快速发展的信息技术,让更多人享受便利的同时,却在老年人面前划出一道无形的“鸿沟”。无健康码出行不便,网上挂号、网上就医、网上购物“障碍”重重。

  针对这些问题,方案均提出了应对方式。

  Improvements will include securing elderly services in emergencies, including optimizing the health screening procedure that requires health codes produced with mobile applications before entering public places, and offering basic services to senior citizens staying at home.

  做好突发事件应急响应状态下对老年人的服务保障,包括完善“健康码”管理便利老年人通行、保障居家老年人基本服务需要。

  The plan urged efforts to help the elderly make medical treatment appointments by providing diversified channels and improving the way online appointments are made.

  便利老年人日常就医,包括提供多渠道挂号等就诊服务、优化老年人网上办理就医服务。

  It also underscored the importance of retaining traditional financial service modes while making online consumption more convenient for this group.

  保留传统金融服务方式、提升网络消费便利化水平。

  To improve the competence of the elderly in terms of technology, measures will be taken to increase the supply of senior-friendly products, redesign internet applications, and enhance technology training for them.

  便利老年人使用智能化产品和服务应用,包括扩大适老化智能终端产品供给、推进互联网应用适老化改造、开展老年人智能技术教育。

  【单词讲解】

  这里的-friendly作为后缀,通常用在名词后面,表示“对...友好的”,比如:user-friendly interface(用户友好的界面)、environment-friendly(对环境友好的/环保的)。

  方案提出,到2020年底前,集中力量推动各项传统服务兜底保障到位,抓紧出台实施一批解决老年人运用智能技术最迫切问题的有效措施(introduce a string of measures effectively addressing the most pressing problems of the elderly in using smart technologies),切实满足老年人基本生活需要。

  打赏实名制 real-name management for livestreaming reward

  国家广播电视总局近日发布《关于加强网络秀场直播和电商直播管理的通知》。

  Livestreaming shows and hosts should be clearly classified, based on their content, as music, dance, singing, fitness or games, among other categories, according to the circular.

  通知明确,网络秀场直播平台要对节目内容和对应主播实行标签分类管理,按“音乐”“舞蹈”“唱歌”“健身”“游戏”等进行分类标注。

  【单词讲解】

  Livestreaming是live(读作 /laɪv/)和streaming两个词的合成形式,这里的live是形容词,表示“现场的”,比如我们看春节晚会的时候,主持人就会说,这里是春晚直播现场,We are here at the live broadcast of the Spring Festival Gala;streaming最初被翻译成“流媒体”,其实就是在网络上播放音频或者视频文件,比如在线平台网飞(Netflix)就是一个TV and movie streaming platform(影视剧在线播放平台),而stream用作动词的时候,也可以用来表达“在线播放”,比如:Millions of videos are streamed every day on Youtube.(油管上每天播放的视频有数百万个)。那么把live和streaming结合在一起,就是在线播放现场的音频或视频,简而言之就是“直播”。

  “打赏”用户实行实名制管理

  According to the circular, online show and livestreaming platforms should implement real-name management for their hosts and users keen on rewarding hosts. In addition, underage users and those who don't register with their real names should not be allowed to reward hosts.

  网络秀场直播平台要对网络主播和“打赏”用户实行实名制管理。未实名制注册的用户不能打赏,未成年用户不能打赏。

  【单词讲解】

  在关于“打赏”的英文报道中,我们经常看到的表述是tip和reward。Tip的用法很多,之所以会被用来表示“打赏”,是因为tip用作动词和名词的时候,有一个意思是“(pay) a small amount of money to someone who has provided you with a service, in addition to the official payment and for their personal use”(在正常支付账单之外,给为你提供服务的人员支付的一小笔额外费用,供其个人使用),即“(付)小费”,比如:He gave the porter a tip/He tipped the porter(他给行李员付了小费)。而reward通常指“something (as money) given or offered in return for a service, good behavior, excellent work, etc.”(对接受的服务、良好的表现或者出色的工作等行为做出的奖赏、回报),也可以直接用作动词来表示“奖赏(某人)”,比如:The company rewarded him for his years of service with a grand farewell party and several presents(公司用一个盛大的派对和很多礼物回馈他多年的工作付出);Salespeople who are willing to work longer hours will receive significant rewards(主动加班的销售员会拿到丰厚的回报)。

  在看直播的过程中,用户打赏行为多是因为主播的表现好、内容吸引人等因素,而不是主播为用户提供了什么具体的服务,因此,个人以为这里的“打赏”用reward更合适。

  The platforms should also put a cap on rewards given to hosts.

  平台应对最高打赏金额进行限制。

  When a user's daily or monthly amount of reward reaches half the limit, the platform should send an alert. Users will be allowed to reward hosts after they confirm through a short messaging service, the circular said.The reward feature will be suspended for users whose daily or monthly limit is reached, it added.

  在用户每日或每月累计“打赏”达到限额一半时,平台应有消费提醒,经短信验证等方式确认后,才能进行下一步消费,达到“打赏”每日或每月限额,应暂停相关用户的“打赏”功能。

  It stated that the platforms should set a delayed arrival period for the reward, and if a host commits an illegal act, the platform should return the reward to the users.

  平台应对“打赏”设置延时到账期,如主播出现违法行为,平台应将“打赏”返还用户。

  失信约束制度 the mechanism for deterring acts of bad faith

  日前召开的国务院常务会议,确定完善失信约束制度(the mechanism for deterring acts of bad faith)、健全社会信用体系(the social credit system)的措施,为发展社会主义市场经济提供支撑。

  会议明确了六方面措施:

  Administrative departments must determine acts of bad faith on the basis of legally binding documents.

  行政机关将特定行为纳入公共信用信息,必须严格以法律、法规等为依据。

  The scope and procedures for sharing credit information will be standardized. The principle of legality and necessity will be observed when deciding whether and to what extent credit information is shared and disclosed.

  规范信用信息共享公开范围和程序。信用信息是否及在何种范围共享和公开要坚持合法、必要原则。

  【单词讲解】

  Credit这个词用法很多,在学校里多用来表示“学分”,比如:He enrolled in a documentary course worth 20 credits(他修了一门纪录片的课程,有20个学分);此外,credit还可以用来表示银行账户的“余额”或“信用、信誉”,比如:Jacob found out his bank account was out of credit.(Jacob 银行卡里没有余额了),银行通常在给人贷款之前会进行 “credit check 信用审查”,并给申请者一个 “信用评分 credit score 或 credit rating”;另外,credit还有一个常用意思就是 “赞扬、认可、功劳、荣誉”,比如:You should take all the credits for this accomplishment(这个成就应该完全归功于你)。

  The identification of lists of entities that have carried out serious acts of bad faith will be better regulated. The list will be limited to those who put public health and safety in grave jeopardy, seriously sabotage fair market competition order or disrupt normal social order. The list will not be willfully expanded without authorization.

  规范严重失信主体名单认定标准,按照有关规定严格限定为严重危害群众身体健康和生命安全、严重破坏市场公平竞争秩序和社会正常秩序等方面的责任主体,不得擅自增加或扩展。具体认定要严格履行程序。

  Punishment against bad-faith acts will be enforced in accordance with laws and regulations, to make sure that penalties are meted out commensurate with dishonest behaviors.

  依法依规开展失信惩戒,确保过惩相当。

  【单词讲解】

  这里的commensurate是形容词,表示“(在大小、重要性、质量等方面)相称的”,通常与with连用,比如:a salary that is commensurate with skills and experience(与技能经验相匹配的薪水)。

  A credit repair mechanism will be established. Entities will be allowed to fix negative credit records, unless otherwise stipulated by laws and regulations, should they correct dishonest behaviors and eliminate their adverse impact.

  建立有利于自我纠错的信用修复机制。除法律法规等另有规定外,失信主体按要求纠正失信行为、消除不良影响的均可申请信用修复。

  The meeting underlined the need to strengthen information security and privacy protection. Illegal collection and transaction of credit information will be strictly cracked down on.

  加强信息安全和隐私保护。严厉打击非法收集、买卖信用信息违法行为。

  (中国日报网英语点津)


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